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苹果 iOS培训 C/C++培训 Objective C培训苹果开发培训 Linux软件工程师培训

(Page 1) | 2 | newer

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    今天有学生在群里问如何在Swift项目中使用CocoaPods。其实不管是Swift还是OC的项目,CocoaPods只是一个包管理器,因此使用方式没有任何区别。只不过CocoaPods里的框架都是用OC编写的,在Swift项目中使用的时候就涉及到一个Swift和OC混合使用的问题。实际上我们在很早以前就讲过,并且在http://www.ubuntucollege.cn的Swift视频教程第一课里就讲了,还有博文在这里。下面就简单的介绍一下步骤: 1. 安装CocoaPods,不过如果是国内的小伙伴,如果没有VPN的话,直接按照CocoaPods官网上的方法是不会成功的,原因是被墙了:

    sudo gem install cocoapods
    2. 淘宝为大家做了一件好事,它架设了一个rubygems的源,下面就修改一下默认的rubygems源地址:
    gem sources --remove https://rubygems.org
    gem sources -a http://ruby.taobao.org/
    先移除默认的源地址,然后将淘宝的rubygems设为默认地址。 3. 安装cocoapods:
    sudo gem install cocoapods
    安装完成后就可以直接使用cocoapods了。 4. 创建新的项目,或者使用已有的Swift项目:
    cd 工程目录
    pod search JSONKit
    查找所需要的框架:
    Setting up CocoaPods master repo
    Setup completed (read-only access)
    
    
    -> GCJSONKit (1.5.0)
       GC's fork of a Very High Performance Objective-C JSON Library.
       pod 'GCJSONKit', '~> 1.5.0'
       - Homepage: https://github.com/gamechanger/JSONKit
       - Source:   https://github.com/gamechanger/JSONKit.git
       - Versions: 1.5.0 [master repo]
    
    
    -> JSONKit (1.5pre)
       A Very High Performance Objective-C JSON Library.
       pod 'JSONKit', '~> 1.5pre'
       - Homepage: https://github.com/johnezang/JSONKit
       - Source:   https://github.com/johnezang/JSONKit.git
       - Versions: 1.5pre, 1.4 [master repo]
    
    
    -> JSONKit-NoWarning (1.2)
       A Very High Performance Objective-C JSON Library.
       pod 'JSONKit-NoWarning', '~> 1.2'
       - Homepage: https://github.com/ignazioc/JSONKit-NoWarning
       - Source:   https://github.com/ignazioc/JSONKit-NoWarning.git
       - Versions: 1.2, 1.1 [master repo]
    5. 在项目里创建Podfile文件,并将所用到的框架添加进去:
    pod 'JSONKit-NoWarning', '~> 1.2'
    6. 下载安装框架:
    pod install
     
    Analyzing dependencies
    Downloading dependencies
    Installing JSONKit (1.5pre)
    Generating Pods project
    Integrating client project
    
    [!] From now on use `SoccerTV.xcworkspace`.
    安装成功后自动生成工作区。 7. 打开工作区,往项目中添加OC源文件,Xcode自动生成桥接文件,也可以手动创建,并修改工程设置。 bridge   8. 在桥接文件中引入框架头文件。
    #import <MobileVLCKit/MobileVLCKit.h>
    #import <JSONKit/JSONKit.h>
    9. 在Swift项目中使用该框架。
    var jsonStr: NSString = "{\"name\":\"Zhangsan\"}"
    var object = jsonStr.objectFromJSONStringWithParseOptions(JKParseOptionValidFlags)
    println("\(object)")
    10. 打印结果:
    {
        name = Zhangsan;
    }
    长沙戴维营教育iOS实训基地出品,转载请注明长沙最好的iOS培训基地(http://www.diveinedu.cn)

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    昨晚看到一兄弟通宵看世界杯,CNTV还是挺厚道,放出了Mac版的插件。最近刚好在弄Swift,就自己写两个小播放器吧,至于数据源,直接Bing搜索一个,然后使用之前介绍过的VLCKit框架进行开发.... VLCKit框架的地址: https://github.com/wuqiong/VLCKit-SDK MobileVLCKit框架的地址: https://github.com/wuqiong/MobileVLCKit-SDK iOS版demo下载地址: https://github.com/DiveinEdu/divein_swift/tree/master/SoccerTV Mac版demo下载地址: https://github.com/DiveinEdu/divein_swift/tree/master/SoccerTV5 效果图: mac 1. 创建iOS或者Mac应用,使用Swift语言。 Snip20140615_9   2. 添加必要的框架,iOS需要添加的框架毕竟多,而Mac基本上不需要添加其它框架,除了VLCKit外。 Snip20140615_10   3. 在Swift-OC bridge头文件中加入VLCKit的头文件。

    #import <MobileVLCKit/MobileVLCKit.h>
    4.  然后就可以开始在Swift代码中开工了,本文只是一个小的demo,感兴趣的同学可以自己给它加上其它的频道甚至更多功能。
            vlcPlayer = VLCMediaPlayer(options: nil)
            vlcPlayer.drawable = self.view
            
            //http://223.82.250.66:8080/ysten-businessmobile/live/cctv-5/dujuejiami.m3u8
            let url = NSURL(string: "rtsp://stream2.gzcbn.tv:1935/app_2/ls_1.stream?domain=gztv")
            let media : VLCMedia = VLCMedia.mediaWithURL(url) as VLCMedia
            vlcPlayer.setMedia(media)
            vlcPlayer.play()
    
    5. 如果有许多关于C++标准库的错误,需要修改C++编辑器设置。 Snip20140615_11 6. 如果遇上找补到MobileVLCKit框架,请设置Framework的查找路径: Snip20140615_12 ----------------------------------------------- 下面是Mac版本的开发。 1. Mac版本的设置比iOS版简单多了,只需要添加VLCKit框架,然后将这个框架复制到打包文件的Framework目录下: Screen Shot 2014-06-15 at 10.05.42 PM   Snip20140615_3   Mac下编译的时候会遇到代码签名的问题,只要在设置里的other code sign里修改一下: Snip20140615_4 直接在Storyboard里指定播放的视图: Snip20140615_5 最后的实现代码很简单:
            mediaPlayer = VLCMediaPlayer(videoView: self.view as VLCVideoView)
            
            let url = NSURL(string: "rtsp://stream2.gzcbn.tv:1935/app_2/ls_1.stream?domain=gztv")
            let media = VLCMedia(URL: url)
            mediaPlayer.setMedia(media)
            mediaPlayer.play()
    长沙戴维营教育iOS开发实训中心发布。 转载请注明长沙最好的iOS开发培训中心戴维营教育出品(http://www.diveinedu.cn)

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    第三方输入法引起MAC 10.10 开机登录无敌风火轮问题解决方案

    我用的是搜狗输入法,所以把搜狗卸载就好了。(注意是卸载,不是单纯的从输入源里移除)操作的思路是,首先要进入计算机,才能进行操作。办法是开机进入单机模式,删除苹果一个文件,让系统认为该计算机还没有被配置,开机后直接进入配置计算机和用户的界面,新建立一个用户,就可以进入桌面删除万恶的输入法了。

    首先开机的时候按 Command+s;

    进入命令提示符画面后 

    1, 输入 sbin/mount -uaw 回车

    这里注意看回车后的提示,只要不是not found之类的就可以了

    2,输入 rm /var/db/.AppleSetupDone 回车

    这里注意rm后面有空格。这里回车后可能无提示,如果有,只要不是not found一类的就可以了,如果老提示not found 仔细检查有没有弄错,rm前面加/试试看等等。

    3,输入 reboot 回车重启

    重启后配置建立完用户就进入系统了

    下载一个搜狗输入法的DMG,打开后选择卸载搜狗输入法。

    重启,删除刚才为了进入系统新配置的账户。


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    其实在很早期的文章里(Objective-C和Swift混合编程开发(一)http://blog.diveinedu.net/objective-c-swift-framework-dev/)已经介绍过了。但还是有许多同学问这个地方,所以干脆在这里再单独介绍一下。 第一、用Xcode 6创建一个基于Objective-C的项目。 第二、在项目中创建一个Swift的类,SwiftLabel,并且让它继承自UILabel。

    //
    //  SwiftLabel.swift
    //  OCSwift
    //
    //  Created by WuQiong on 14-8-24.
    //  Copyright (c) 2014年 戴维营教育. All rights reserved.
    //
    
    import UIKit
    
    class SwfitLabel : UILabel {
        init(frame: CGRect) {
            super.init(frame: frame);
            self.textColor = UIColor.redColor();
        }
    }
    
      第三、选中工程,然后在Build Settings中找到Packaging->Product Module Name,双击后输入SwiftModule。(可以通过搜索Packaging找到)。 设置好这里后,默认情况下Xcode就会根据Product Module Name生成一个名为“SwiftModule-swift.h”的头文件,里面会包含所有Swift文件中的类。 第四、在需要使用swift模块的Objective-C代码中引入头文件"SwiftModule-swift.h"就可以了。本文中为SwiftLabel类。
    //
    //  ViewController.m
    //  OCSwift
    //
    //  Created by WuQiong on 14-8-24.
    //  Copyright (c) 2014年 戴维营教育. All rights reserved.
    //
    
    #import "ViewController.h"
    
    //引入Swift模块
    #import "SwiftModule-swift.h"
    
    @interface ViewController ()
                
    
    @end
    
    @implementation ViewController
                
    - (void)viewDidLoad {
        [super viewDidLoad];
        
        //直接调用Swift里的代码
        SwfitLabel *label = [[SwfitLabel alloc] initWithFrame:CGRectMake(20, 20, 200, 300)];
        label.numberOfLines = 0;
        label.text = @"戴维营教育的家伙们,你们真的是太无聊了,半夜去爬岳麓山!!!";
        [self.view addSubview:label];
    }
    
    - (void)didReceiveMemoryWarning {
        [super didReceiveMemoryWarning];
        // Dispose of any resources that can be recreated.
    }
    
    @end
    第五、运行结果: iOS Simulator Screen Shot 2014年8月24日 下午8.41.31

    0 0
  • 01/02/15--02:32: Modules 与 #import
  • Xcode5(LLVM 5compiler )及之后的编译器,用户可以在工程的设置里选择是否使用Modules来替代#import。 这两者之间差别在于: #import是拷贝引入的文件,当用户修改文件时,编译器重新编译该修改的文件以及该文件所引入的其它头文件,当一个库文件被多处引入时,该库文件会有多份拷贝,并在编译过程中编译多次,编译时间为S x H(S是引入的库文件的数目,H库文件被引入的次数),在LLVM5之前,为解决这个重复编译的问题,用户一般采取1. 在.h使用前向申明, 在.m的才引入库文件,  2. 将常用的.h文件放入预编译文件中。这可以在一定程度上优化上述的编译时间问题,但大量的头文件放入预编译文件中,可能会照成命名空间污染(命名冲突)。 Modules封装framework和import语句 来替代拷贝framework的代码。这意味着不管用户引入Modules多少次,framework仅仅编译一次,编译时间为S + H,并且H被预编译成动态库(dylib)并自动link,实际编译时间为S. 同时,Modules不在需要明确添加所使用的framework。

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  • 01/03/15--07:19: Property and Ivar
  • Property 表示一个对象的状态,using accessor能避免直接操作ivars (instance variables)。

    use accessors 的优点: 1. KVO(key-value observing)。 2. 可以在setter中添加相关操作。 3. lazy instantiation。 4. Locking(用于多线程)。 不可用accessors的地方: 1. 在accessors函数里不可使用,会出现死循环。 2. Dealloc里不可使用,Dealloc的状态是不稳定的,要避免KVO调用。 3. Initialization里不可使用,Initialization状态也是不稳定的, 要避免KVO调用,并且Initialization用来初始化read-only variables,  避免初始化readwrite variables Accessors被OC高度优化,具有可维护性和灵活性,一般来说,哪怕是私有变量,都应使用 Accessors。
       

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    一、auto关键字的前世

    从C语言开始,auto关键字就被当作是一个变量的存储类型修饰符,表示自动变量(局部变量)。它不能被单独使用,否则编译器会给出警告。

    #include <stdio.h>
    
    int main()
    {
            int a = 123;
            auto int b = 234;
            auto c = 345;
    
            printf("a = %d, b = %d, c = %d\n", a, b, c);
            return 0;
    }
    

    编译运行结果:

    $ gcc main.c
    main.c:7:7: warning: type specifier missing, defaults to 'int' [-Wimplicit-int]
            auto c = 345;
            ~~~~ ^
    1 warning generated.
    $ ./a.out 
    a = 123, b = 234, c = 345
    

    二、auto关键字的今生

    C++ 11标准中,添加了新的类型推导特性,考虑到auto关键字很少使用,就给它重新赋予了功能——申明类型由编译器推导的变量。在C++ 11中,使用auto定义的变量不能使用其它类型修饰符修饰,该变量的类型由编译器根据初始化数据自动确定。auto类型的变量必须进行初始化。

    #include <iostream>
    
    int main()
    {
            int a = 21;
            auto b = a;
    
            //typeid可以获取变量或者数据类型的名字
            std::cout << typeid(b).name() << std::endl;
    
            return 0;
    }
    

    1 .使用C++ 98标准进行编译,会出现警告:

    $ clang++ main.cpp -std=c++98
    main.cpp:6:2: warning: 'auto' type specifier is a C++11 extension
          [-Wc++11-extensions]
            auto b = a;
            ^
    1 warning generated.
    $ ./a.out 
    i                   #输出结果为整数类型
    

    改用C++ 11进行编译:

    $ clang++ main.cpp -std=c++11
    $ ./a.out 
    i
    

    2 .但是如果还是将auto作为存储类型修饰符使用,则在C++ 11标准下会出现警告:

    #include <iostream>
    
    int main()
    {
            int a = 21;
            auto int b = a;
    
            //typeid可以获取变量或者数据类型的名字
            std::cout << typeid(b).name() << std::endl;
    
            return 0;
    }
    

    使用C++ 98编译:

    $ clang++ main.cpp -std=c++98
    $ ./a.out 
    i
    

    改用C++ 11编译,出现警告,不再允许作为存储类型修饰符使用:

    $ clang++ main.cpp -std=c++11
    main.cpp:6:2: warning: 'auto' storage class specifier is not permitted in C++11,
          and will not be supported in future releases [-Wauto-storage-class]
            auto int b;
            ^~~~~
    1 warning generated.
    

    3 .必须要对auto类型的变量进行初始化,C++ 98中不能单独使用auto定义变量。

    $ clang++ main.cpp -std=c++98
    main.cpp:6:2: warning: 'auto' type specifier is a C++11 extension
          [-Wc++11-extensions]
            auto b;
            ^
    main.cpp:6:7: error: declaration of variable 'b' with type 'auto' requires an
          initializer
            auto b;
                 ^
    1 warning and 1 error generated.
    $ clang++ main.cpp 
    main.cpp:6:2: warning: 'auto' type specifier is a C++11 extension
          [-Wc++11-extensions]
            auto b;
            ^
    main.cpp:6:7: error: declaration of variable 'b' with type 'auto' requires an
          initializer
            auto b;
                 ^
    1 warning and 1 error generated.
    

    三、扩展

    在C++中还能使用decltype来获取变量或者表达式的类型并用来定义新的变量。

    #include <iostream>
    
    int main()
    {
            int a = 21;
            decltype(a) b;
    
            std::cout << typeid(b).name() << std::endl;
    
            return 0;
    }
    

    编译运行结果:

    $ clang++ main.cpp -std=c++98
    $ ./a.out 
    i
    $ clang++ main.cpp -std=c++11
    $ ./a.out 
    i
    
    需要注意的是该标准只是改变了C++中auto的用法,但是并没有影响auto在C语言中的使用! 本文档由长沙戴维营教育整理。

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    什么是Lambda?

    C++ 11加入了一个非常重要的特性——Lambda表达式。营里(戴维营)的兄弟都对Objective-C很熟悉,许多人多block情有独钟,将各种回调函数、代理通通都用它来实现。甚至有人选择用FBKVOController、BlocksKit等开源框架将KVO、控件事件处理都改为通过block解决。原因就是简单、方便、直观,函数的定义和使用出现在同一个地方。这里的Lambda表达式实际上和block非常类似,当然如果你用它和Swift语言的闭包比较,那就是一回事了。下面先看几个Lambda和block的示例代码。

    1 .Objective-C的block示例代码,使用^表示block类型,总体来说与函数指针的定义类似。

    #import <Foundation/Foundation.h>
    
    int main()
    {
            void (^block)() = ^void() {
                    NSLog(@"In block");
            };
    
            block();
            return 0;
    }
    

    编译运行:

    $ clang main.m -framework Foundation
    $ ./a.out 
    2015-01-28 14:17:52.763 a.out[9901:165707] In block
    

    2 .Swift的闭包,参数列表、返回值类型等都写在花括号{}内部。

    let closure = {
            () -> Void in
            println("In swift")
    }
    
    closure()
    

    编译运行:

    $ swiftc main.swift 
    $ ./main 
    In swift
    
    测试Swift也可以直接使用Playground或REPL(Read-Eval-Print-Loop)环境。

    3 .C++的Lambda表达式。

    #include <iostream>
    
    int main()
    {
            auto lambda = []() -> void{
                    std::cout << "In lambda" << std::endl;
            };
            lambda();
            return 0;
    }
    

    编译运行,注意使用C++ 11的特性进行编译:

    $ clang++ main.cpp -std=c++11
    $ ./a.out 
    In lambda
    
    Lambda、block实际上都是一个闭包(closure),它们都类似于一个匿名的函数,但是拥有捕获所在作用域中变量的能力;能够将函数做为对象一样使用。通常用它们来实现回调函数、代理等功能。

    Lambda使用方法

    1 .基本形式

    语法 序号
    [ 捕获列表 ] ( 形参数列表 ) mutable(可选) 异常属性 -> 返回值类型 { 函数体 } (1)
    [ capture-list ] ( params ) -> ret { body } (2)
    [ capture-list ] ( params ) { body } (3)
    [ capture-list ] { body } (4)
    • (1)为完整的形式,包含变量捕获列表、形参列表、可变属性(可选)和返回值类型等。
    • (2)省略了mutable,表示Lambda不能修改捕获的变量。
    • Lambda的返回值类型如果可以由函数体中的实际返回值推导出,可以省略。
    • 如果没有形参,可以省略圆括号。

    2 .捕获列表

    lambda表达式中可以获取(捕获)它所在作用域中的变量值,并且有两种捕获方式:引用和值。我们可以在捕获列表中设置各变量的捕获方式。如果没有设置捕获列表,lambda默认不能捕获任何的变量,这点与block不同。

    #include <iostream>
    
    int main()
    {
            int a = 123;
    
            auto lambda = []()->void{
                    std::cout << "In lambda: " << a << std::endl;
            };
            lambda();
    
            return 0;
    }
    

    编译运行:

    $ clang++ main.cpp -std=c++11
    main.cpp:8:33: error: variable 'a' cannot be implicitly captured in a lambda
          with no capture-default specified
                    std::cout << "In lambda: " << a << std::endl;
                                                  ^
    main.cpp:5:6: note: 'a' declared here
            int a = 123;
                ^
    main.cpp:7:16: note: lambda expression begins here
            auto lambda = []()->void{
                          ^
    1 error generated.
    

    []中设置捕获列表,就可以在lambda中使用变量a了,这里使用按值(=, by value)捕获。

    #include <iostream>
    
    int main()
    {
            int a = 123;
    
            auto lambda = [=]()->void{
                    std::cout << "In lambda: " << a << std::endl;
            };
            lambda();
    
            return 0;
    }
    

    编译运行:

    $ clang++ main.cpp -std=c++11
    $ ./a.out 
    In lambda: 123
    

    捕获列表的设置方式:

    |设置方式|结果| |-|-| |[]|不捕获| |[=]|全部按值捕获| |[&]|全部按引用捕获| |[a, b]|按值捕获变量a和b| |[&a, b]|按引用捕获a,按值捕获b| |[&, a]|按值捕获a,其它变量全部按引用捕获| |[=, &a]|按引用捕获a,其它全部按值捕获|

    注意: 捕获列表没有先后顺序;捕获列表中的变量不能出现重复申明,比如[&, &a]&中已经包含了&a的申明了,因此不能再出现&a

    具体的捕获类型,可以通过打印变量地址进行查看。

    • 按值捕获:
    auto lambda = [=]()->void{
        std::cout << "In lambda: " << &a << std::endl;
    };
    

    运行结果为:

    $ clang++ main.cpp -std=c++11
    $ ./a.out 
    0x7fff555c69b8
    In lambda: 0x7fff555c69b0
    
    • 按引用捕获:
    auto lambda = [&]()->void{
        std::cout << "In lambda: " << &a << std::endl;
    };
    

    运行结果为:

    $ clang++ main.cpp -std=c++11
    $ ./a.out 
    0x7fff58a9b9b8
    In lambda: 0x7fff58a9b9b8
    

    3 .可变类型(mutable)

    按值传递到lambda中的变量,默认是不可变的(immutable),如果需要在lambda中进行修改的话,需要在形参列表后添加mutable关键字(按值传递无法改变lambda外变量的值)。

    #include <iostream>
    
    int main()
    {
            int a = 123;
            std::cout << a << std::endl;
    
            auto lambda = [=]() mutable ->void{
                    a = 234;
                    std::cout << "In lambda: " << a << std::endl;
            };
            lambda();
    
            std::cout << a << std::endl;
    
            return 0;
    }
    

    编译运行结果为:

    $ clang++ main.cpp -std=c++11
    lishan:c_study apple$ ./a.out 
    123
    In lambda: 234  #可以修改
    123             #注意这里的值,并没有改变
    

    如果没有添加mutable,则编译出错:

    $ clang++ main.cpp -std=c++11
    main.cpp:9:5: error: cannot assign to a variable captured by copy in a
          non-mutable lambda
                    a = 234;
                    ~ ^
    1 error generated.
    

    4 .返回值类型。

    lambda的返回值类型可以省略,编译器会根据实际返回值的类型自动推导。

    #include <iostream>
    
    int main()
    {
            int a = 123;
            std::cout << a << std::endl;
    
            auto lambda = [=]() mutable{
                    a = 234;
                    std::cout << "In lambda: " << a << std::endl;
                    return a;
            };
            int b = lambda();
    
            std::cout << b << std::endl;
    
            return 0;
    }
    

    编译运行:

    $ clang++ main.cpp -std=c++11
    $ ./a.out 
    123
    In lambda: 234
    234
    

    参考资料

    1. https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd293603.aspx
    2. http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/articles/servers-storage-dev/howto-use-lambda-exp-cpp11-2189895.html
    3. http://en.cppreference.com/w/cpp/language/lambda
    4. http://www.cprogramming.com/c++11/c++11-lambda-closures.html
    本文档由长沙戴维营教育整理。

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    什么是远程消息推送功能

    苹果给iOS和Mac添加了消息推送的功能,使得我们可以通过后台服务器给应用程序(APP)发送消息,不管APP是否正在使用,比如邮箱的来件提示功能。这项服务被称为Apple Push Notification service(APNs)。里面一共涉及到四个角色:APP、设备、APNs和应用后台服务器(Provider),其中APP、后台服务器和APNs之间使用deviceToken唯一的标识一个用户。

    推送服务的工作流程:

    1. APP向系统注册推送服务。
    2. 设备从APNs请求deviceToken。
    3. 通过代理方法将deviceToken返回给APP。
    4. APP将deviceToken发送给应用后台服务器(Provider)。
    5. 应用后台服务器保存deviceToken,然后在需要推送通知的时候,给APNs发送信息,使用deviceToken标识所要送达的客户端。
    6. APNs将后台服务器发过来的数据推送到设备。
    7. 设备将消息分发给应用程序。

    在使用推送功能的时候,需要在开发者中心创建支持Push Notification的证书,并且将证书和私钥用于应用后台服务器与APNs之间通信。

    环境配置

    使用推送服务有一些必要条件:

    1. 开发者账号。
    2. iOS真机(iPhone、iPad、iPod)。
    3. 后台服务器。
    4. 网络。

    为了使应用支持推送服务,需要配置Provisioning Profile使它支持Push,和普通的Provisioning Profile文件一样分为Development和Production两个版本。我们使用Development版进行测试。

    接下来创建一个用于应用后台服务器和APNs服务器通信时使用的SSL证书和私钥。

    1 .在钥匙串访问工具中获取证书请求文件(CSR)。

    2 .保存请求文件。

    3 .从钥匙串访问工具中导出私钥,将它保存为PushKey.p12,输入密码abcde。千万别把密码给忘了哈,等下要用的。

    4 .登陆iOS Dev Center创建APP ID和*Provisioning Profile*。

    5 .创建新的App ID时,要注意开启Push Notification

    6 .最后App ID看起来是这样的。

    7 .到这一步,虽然已经开启了推送服务,但是还需要进一步配置,点击Setting按钮进行设置。

    8 .滚动到最下面,需要创建SSL证书(Create Certificate),测试环境使用Development SSL Certificate

    9 .查看证书创建步骤和说明,上传第1步得到的证书请求文件。

    10 .下载生成好的证书,命名为aps_development.cer


    到了这里,我们有多种选择继续了。

    1 .使用第三方小工具PushMeBaby模拟应用后台服务器发送推送信息。

    2 .搭建应用后台服务器发送推送信息。


    下面先试一试第一种方法,使用PushMeBaby。这是一个开源的Mac小程序,我们直接去Github下载源码,用Xcode打开,将ApplicationDelegate.m中天上deviceToken和证书的位置。

    - (id)init {
        self = [super init];
        if(self != nil) {
            //77e231f0 76257e00 eed93ac6 47b52c78 12bae79f 9c9d1c67 4c990589 36c9a235 ---- 保留空格
            self.deviceToken = @"";
            //推送内容,JSON格式
            self.payload = @"{\"aps\":{\"alert\":\"长沙戴维营教育iOS开发培训最好!\",\"badge\":1}}";
            //获取证书路径
            self.certificate = [[NSBundle mainBundle] pathForResource:@"aps_development" ofType:@"cer"];
        }
        return self;
    }
    
    deviceToken的获取在下面的代码部分。

    一定要记得将刚才的证书文件添加到项目中,当然也可以直接将证书路径赋值给self.certificate。


    接下来试一试第二种方法,我们使用PHP来发送通知(其实运行PHP并不需要另外搭建服务器和下载程序,Mac默认支持PHP运行,不信到命令行运行一下php)。

    这种方式相对来说麻烦一些,但是也是实际使用的时候会采取的方式。我们需要进一步处理私钥和证书文件。

    1 .首先将证书文件和私钥处理成单个方便使用的pem文件,假设CSR、p12和cer文件都放在桌面上。

    $ cd ~/Desktop
    $ls 
    aps_development.cer
    CertificateSigningRequest.certSigningRequest
    PushKey.p12
    

    2 .将aps_development.cer转换为pem文件。

    $ openssl x509 -in aps_development.cer -inform der -out PushCert.pem
    $ ls
    aps_development.cer
    CertificateSigningRequest.certSigningRequest
    PushCert.pem
    PushKey.p12
    

    3 .将p12私钥文件转换为pem文件。

    $ openssl pkcs12 -nocerts -out PushKey.pem -in PushKey.p12 
    Enter Import Password:
    MAC verified OK
    Enter PEM pass phrase:
    Verifying - Enter PEM pass phrase:
    

    4 .将两个文件合成同一个。

    $ cat PushCert.pem PushKey.pem > ck.pem
    $ ls
    aps_development.cer
    CertificateSigningRequest.certSigningRequest
    ck.pem
    PushCert.pem
    PushKey.pem 
    PushKey.p12
    

    5 .测试证书是否有效。

    $ openssl s_client -connect gateway.sandbox.push.apple.com:2195 -cert PushCert.pem -key PushKey.pem 
    

    如果有效的话,会输出一堆信息,并且建立连接,否则不会成功建立连接。

    6 .使用PHP进行测试,下载SimplePush.php,修改文件并填入deviceToken和密码。在终端运行该代码。

    $ php simplepush.php 
    Connected to APNS
    Message successfully delivered
    

    成功发送推送消息。

    代码实现

    有了上面的这些准备工作,iOS端的开发非常简单,UIApplicaton中有好几个方法都与推送消息有关,包括本地推送。

    - (BOOL)application:(UIApplication *)application didFinishLaunchingWithOptions:(NSDictionary *)launchOptions {
        //判断是否注册了远程通知
        if (![application isRegisteredForRemoteNotifications]) {
            UIUserNotificationSettings *uns = [UIUserNotificationSettings settingsForTypes:(UIUserNotificationTypeAlert|UIUserNotificationTypeBadge|UIUserNotificationTypeSound) categories:nil];
            [application registerUserNotificationSettings:uns];
            //注册远程通知
            [application registerForRemoteNotifications];
        }
    
        return YES;
    }
    
    //注册成功,返回deviceToken
    - (void)application:(UIApplication *)application didRegisterForRemoteNotificationsWithDeviceToken:(NSData *)deviceToken
    {
        NSLog(@"%@", deviceToken);
    }
    
    //注册失败
    - (void)application:(UIApplication *)application didFailToRegisterForRemoteNotificationsWithError:(NSError *)error
    {
        NSLog(@"%@", error);
    }
    
    //接收到推送消息
    - (void)application:(UIApplication *)application didReceiveRemoteNotification:(NSDictionary *)userInfo
    {
        NSLog(@"remote: %@", userInfo);
    }
    
    甚至可以使用APNs实现一个聊天工具,具体请查看参考资料(4)。

    参考资料

    1. https://developer.apple.com/library/ios/documentation/NetworkingInternet/Conceptual/RemoteNotificationsPG/Chapters/ApplePushService.html#//apple_ref/doc/uid/TP40008194-CH100-SW9
    2. https://github.com/stefanhafeneger/PushMeBaby
    3. http://www.raywenderlich.com/32960/apple-push-notification-services-in-ios-6-tutorial-part-1
    4. http://www.raywenderlich.com/32963/apple-push-notification-services-in-ios-6-tutorial-part-2
    本文档由长沙戴维营教育整理。

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    问题

    在iOS/Mac中我们有许多方式去持久化存储数据:NSUserDefault、Key chain、C语言文件接口、NSFileHandle、基础框架中的write方法、归档等等。在实际应用中,我们经常需要将这些数据按一定格式转换为 对象,并且进行一定的筛选等操作然后再使用,显得不是很方便。Apple给我们提供了Core Data框架,可以直接按对象的方式操作数据,让这些变得非常简单。

    简介

    CoreData中有这么几个常用的元素:
    名称 作用
    NSManagedObjectModel 对象模型,指定所用对象文件
    NSPersistentStoreCoordinator 持久化存储协调器,设置对象的存储方式和数据存放位置
    NSManagedObjectContext 对象管理上下文,负责数据的实际操作(重要)
    NSEntityDescriptor 实体描述符,描述一个实体,可以用来生成实体对应的对象
    NSManagedObject 对象
    NSFetchRequest 对象查询,相当于SQL的Select语句

    使用步骤

    在这篇文章中我们使用最简单的方式,也就是在创建项目的时候,勾选“Core Data”选项。Xcode会自动替我们在“AppDelegate”中加入创建“NSManagedObjectModel”、 “NSPersistentStoreCoordinate”和“NSManagedObjectContext”等对象,方便后面的使用。 1 . 创建“NSManagedObjectModel”对象。
    - (NSManagedObjectModel *)managedObjectModel {
        if (_managedObjectModel != nil) {
            return _managedObjectModel;
        }
    
        //CoreData模型文件的路径,注意编译好的模型文件名扩展名为"momd"
        NSURL *modelURL = [[NSBundle mainBundle] URLForResource:@"CoreData01" withExtension:@"momd"];
        _managedObjectModel = [[NSManagedObjectModel alloc] initWithContentsOfURL:modelURL];
        return _managedObjectModel;
    }
    
    2 . 创建“NSPersistentStoreCoordinator”对象。
    - (NSPersistentStoreCoordinator *)persistentStoreCoordinator {
        if (_persistentStoreCoordinator != nil) {
            return _persistentStoreCoordinator;
        }
    
        //指定需要持久化的模型对象
        _persistentStoreCoordinator = [[NSPersistentStoreCoordinator alloc] initWithManagedObjectModel:[self managedObjectModel]];
        //持久化的存储文件
        NSURL *storeURL = [[self applicationDocumentsDirectory] URLByAppendingPathComponent:@"CoreData01.sqlite"];
        NSError *error = nil;
        //设置存储格式为SQLite
        if (![_persistentStoreCoordinator addPersistentStoreWithType:NSSQLiteStoreType configuration:nil URL:storeURL options:nil error:&error]) {
    
        }
    
        return _persistentStoreCoordinator;
    }
    
    3 . 创建上下文
    - (NSManagedObjectContext *)managedObjectContext {
        // Returns the managed object context for the application (which is already bound to the persistent store coordinator for the application.)
        if (_managedObjectContext != nil) {
            return _managedObjectContext;
        }
    
        NSPersistentStoreCoordinator *coordinator = [self persistentStoreCoordinator];
        if (!coordinator) {
            return nil;
        }
    
        //创建管理上下文
        _managedObjectContext = [[NSManagedObjectContext alloc] init];
        //关联上下文与存储对象
        [_managedObjectContext setPersistentStoreCoordinator:coordinator];
        return _managedObjectContext;
    }
    
    4 . 设置模型文件,添加实体(Entity) 点击“CoreData01.xcdatamodelId”文件,然后添加一个实体“Book”,并增加几个属性。Core Data中的实体类似于数据库的表定义,规定了不同字段(属性)的名字和类型。 5 . 创建模型对象的类, "Editor > Create NSManagedobject Subclass"。 6 . 选择使用标量定义数值类型的属性(默认使用NSNumber类型定义int、float等类型的属性)。 7 . Xcode自动创建于实体同名的类,并且继承自“NSManagedObject”。 8 . 创建对象并存储。
    //获取AppDelegate中创建的上下文对象
    AppDelegate *appDelegate = (AppDelegate *)[UIApplication sharedApplication].delegate;
    
    NSManagedObjectContext *context = appDelegate.managedObjectContext;
    
    //获取实体描述符
    NSEntityDescription *entity = [NSEntityDescription entityForName:@"Book" inManagedObjectContext:context];
    //创建对象
    Book *book = [[NSManagedObject alloc] initWithEntity:entity insertIntoManagedObjectContext:context];
    //设置对象的属性
    book.title = @"红楼梦";
    //保存数据
    [context save:nil];
    
    9 . 以后可以通过"NSFetchRequest"从文件中获取数据。
    AppDelegate *appDelegate = (AppDelegate *)[UIApplication sharedApplication].delegate;
    NSManagedObjectContext *context = appDelegate.managedObjectContext;
    
    //创建请求对象,用于获取实体Book所对应的全部数据,可以通过给NSFetchRequest设置predicate和sortDescriptors对结果进行筛选和排序。
    NSFetchRequest *fetchRequest = [NSFetchRequest fetchRequestWithEntityName:@"Book"];
    NSArray *result = [context executeFetchRequest:fetchRequest error:nil];
    NSLog(@"%@", result);
    

    总结

    Core Data的简单使用还是很方便的,我们只需要关注数据内容和处理逻辑,而不需要考虑过多的存储操作。但是它需要使用很多貌似没有直接关联的代码,使得大家感觉非常复杂。
    本文档由长沙戴维营教育整理。

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